phonics, syllable and accent rules-ag真人试玩平台


phonics rules

the vowels are "a,e,i,o, and u"; also sometimes "y" & "w". this also includes the diphthongs "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.
the consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the in speech. they are: "b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,qu,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh, ng, and gh".

1. sometimes the rules don't work.
there are many exceptions in english because of the vastness of the language and the many languages from which it has borrowed. the rules do work however, in the majority of the words.

2. every in every word must have a vowel.
english is a "vocal" language; every word must have a vowel.

3. "c" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". examples: "cyst", "central", and "city".

4. "g" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". example: "gem", "gym", and "gist".

5. when 2 consonants are joined together and form one new sound, they are a digraph. they count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. examples: "ch,sh,th,ph and wh".

6. when a ends in a and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. examples: "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck".

7. when a ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. examples: "make, gene, kite, rope, and use".

8. when a has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. examples: "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". note: diphthongs don't follow this rule; in a diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. the diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.

9. when a ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. examples: "pa/per, me, i, o/pen, u/nit, and my".

10. when a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". it is not long nor short. "r-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). examples: "term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar, or/der".

basic syllable rules

1. to find the number of syllables:
---count the vowels in the word,
---subtract any silent vowels,
(like the silent "e" at the end of a word or the second vowel when two vowels a together in a syllable)
---subtract one vowel from every diphthong, (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.)
---the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables.
the number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. for example:
the word "came" has 2 vowels, but the "e" is silent, leaving one vowel sound andone syllable.
the word "outside" has 4 vowels, but the "e" is silent and the "ou" is a diphthong which counts as only one sound, so this word has only two vowels sounds and therefore, two syllables.

2. divide between two middle consonants.
split up words that have two middle consonants. for example:
hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and den/nis. the only exceptions are the digraphs. never split up digraphs as they really represent only one sound. the exceptions are "th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch", and "wh".

3. usually divide before a single middle consonant.
when there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in:
"o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". the only exceptions are those times when the first has an short sound, as in "cab/in".

4. divide before the before an "-le" syllable.
when you have a word that has the old-style in which the "-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the before the "-le". for example: "a/ble", "fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble" and "this/tle". the only to this are "ckle" words like "tick/le".

5. divide off any words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds.
split off the parts of words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". divide off prefixes such at "un/happy", "pre/paid", or "re/write". also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er", "teach/er", "hope/less" and "care/ful". in the word "stop/ping", the suffix is "-ping" because this word follows the rule that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable, you double the last and add the "-ing".

accent rules

when a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. the with the louder is the accented syllable. it may seem that the placement of accents in words is often or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.

1. accents are often on the first syllable. examples: ba'/sic, pro'/gram.

2. in words that have suffixes or prefixes, the is usually on the main root word. examples: box'/es, un/tie'.

3. if de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first in a word, it is usually not accented. examples: de/lay', ex/plore'.

4. two vowel letters together in the last of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. examples: com/plain', con/ceal'.

5. when there are two like letters within a word, the before the double consonants is usually accented. examples: be/gin'/ner, let'/ter.

6. the is usually on the before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second before the suffix -ate. examples: af/fec/ta'/tion, dif/fer/en'/ti/ate.

7. in words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. examples: ac'/ci/dent, de/ter'/mine.

  • [θrəut] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.咽喉;嗓子;出入口 ()
  • [´ðeəfɔ:] 移动到这儿单词发声 ad.&conj.因此;所以 ()
  • [´ɔbviəs] 移动到这儿单词发声 a.明显的;显而易见的 ()
  • [´speliŋ] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.拼法;缀字 ()
  • [ik´sepʃən] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.例外;反对,异议 ()
  • [kəm´paund] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.&a.混合(的) v.合成 ()
  • [´æktʃuəli] 移动到这儿单词发声 ad.事实上;实际上 ()
  • [stres] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.强调;压力 vt.强调 ()
  • [´æksənt, æk´sent] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.重音;口音 vt.重读 ()
  • [´siləbəl] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.音节;只言片语 ()
  • [´rændəm] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.偶然的行动 ()
  • [,æksi´dentl] 移动到这儿单词发声 a.偶然的;附属的 ()
  • [´kɔnsənənt] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.辅音 a.符合的 ()

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