passage1 建议用时：8分钟 from: to:
when one looks back upon the fifteen hundred years that are the life span of the english language, he should be able to notice a number of truths. the history of our language has always been a history of constant change-at times a slow, almost imperceptible change, at other times a violent between two languages. our language has always been a living growing , it has never been static. another truth that emerges from such a study is that language at all times has been the possession not of one class or group but of many. 『at one extreme it has been the property of the common, ignorant folk, who have used it in the daily business of their living, much as they have used their animals or the kitchen pots and pans.』① at the other extreme it has been the treasure of those who have respected it as an instrument and a sign of civilization, and who have struggled by writing it down to give it some permanence, order, dignity, and if possible, a little beauty.
as we consider our changing language, we should note here two developments that are of special and immediate importance to us. one is that since the time of the anglo-saxons there has been an almost complete reversal of the different devices for showing the of words in a sentence. anglo-saxon (old english) was a language of many inflections. modern english has few inflections. we must now depend largely on word order and function words to convey the meanings that the older language did by means of changes in the forms of words. function words, you should understand, are words such as prepositions, conjunctions, and a few others that are used to show s among other words. a few inflections, however, have survived. and when some word inflections come into conflict with word order, there may be trouble for the users of the language, as we shall see later when we turn our attention to such maters as who or whom and me or i. the second fact we must consider is that as language itself changes, our attitudes toward language forms change also. 『the eighteenth century, for example, produced from various sources a tendency to fix the language into patterns not always set in and grew, until at the present time there is a strong tendency to restudy and re-evaluate language practices in terms of the ways in which people speak and write.』②
1.in contrast to the earlier linguists, modern linguists tend to .
a. attempt to continue the standardization of the language
b. evaluate language practices in terms of current speech rather than standards or proper patterns
c. be more about the improvement of the language than its analysis or history
d. be more aware of the rules of the language usage
2.choose the meaning for the word "inflection" used in line 4 of paragraph 2.
a. changes in the forms of words.
b. changes in sentence structures.
c. changes in spelling rules.
d. words that have similar meanings.
3.which of the following statements is not mentioned in the passage?
a. it is generally believed that the year 1500 can be set as the beginning of the modern english language.
b. some other languages had great influence on the english language at some stages of its development.
c. the english language has been and still in a state of constant change.
d. many classes or groups have contributed to the development of the english language.
4. the author of these paragraphs is probably a(an) .
a. historianb. philosopher
c. anthropologistd. linguist
5.which of the following can be best used as the title of the passage?
a. the history of the english language.
b. our changing attitude towards the english language.
c. our changing language.
d. some s of modern english.
1.span n. 跨度，范围，一段时间，期间
2.imperceptible adj. 感觉不到的，觉察不到的，极细微的
3. n. 生物体，有机体
4.possession n. 拥有，占有，领土，领地
5.ignorant adj. 无知的
6.folk n. 人们，民族
7.permanence n. 永久，持久
8.anglo-saxons n. 盎格鲁-撒克逊语，盎格鲁-撒克逊人，地道的英国人
9.reversal n. 颠倒，反向，逆转
10.inflection n. 词尾变化
11.preposition n. 前置词，介词
12.conjunction n. 联合，关联，连接词
13.in terms of 根据，按照，用......的话，在......方面
①【解析】"who"引导非限制性，修饰"the common, ignorant folk"。"much as"引导。"kitchen pots and pans"意为"锅碗瓢盆"。
②【解析】 此句为一个复合。"until"引导一个并列句，前一句的主语是"a tendency"，"to fix the language into patterns not always set in and grew"作"tendency"的定语，第二句的主语也是"a tendency"，"to"后面的句子作"tendency"的定语，"in which"引导的修饰"ways"。
1.b细节题。根据题干回原文中定位，阅读文章时注意首末段及各段开头的句子，这往往都是考点所在。这篇文章讲的主要是英语语言演变的一些特点，指出了古英语与现代英语的不同，以及语言学家态度的转变。本题问的正是现代语言学家与早期语言学家不同的倾向。根据文章末尾the eighteenth century, for example, produced from various sources a tendency to fix the language into patterns not always set in and grew, until at the present time there is a strong tendency to restudy and re-evaluate language practices in terms of the ways in which people speak and write. 现代语言学家倾向于根据人们说和写的方式评价语言实践，而不是像早期的语言学家根据一定的模式评价语言。选项b符合文章的意思。
2.a词汇题。要根据上下文的信息判断单词的意思。文章在第二段中间再次提到inflection时说，a few inflections, however, have survived. 后面文章又举了who/whom和me/i为例说明inflection，这是一篇关于语言学的文章，从例子可以看出inflection的意思应该是"单词的变形"，选项a正确。
3.a细节题。根据文章的内容，选项a"普遍认为1500年是现代英语的起点"在文章中没有提及，故为正确答案。文章第二句说the history of our language has always been a history of constant change - at times a slow, almost imperceptible change, at other times a violent between two languages. 我们语言的历史是一个不断变化的历史--在一些时间里缓慢得几乎难以察觉，在另一些时间里则是两种语言的激烈碰撞。由此可以推断一些其他的语言对英语的发展有重大影响，选项b符合文章的意思。
passage2 建议用时：6.5分钟 from: to:
culture is one of the most challenging elements of the international marketplace. 『this system of patterns of the members of a given society is constantly shaped by a set of dynamic s: language, religion, values and attitudes, manners and customs, aesthetics, technology, education, and social institutions.』① to cope with this system, an international manager needs both factual and interpretive knowledge of culture. to some extent, the factual knowledge can be ; its comes only through experience.
the most complicated problems in with the cultural stem from the fact that one cannot learn culture-one has to live it. two schools of thought exist in the business world on how to deal with cultural . one is that business is business the world around, following the model of pepsi and mcdonald's. in some cases, globalization is a fact of life; however, cultural differences are still far from converging.
the other school proposes that companies must tailor business approaches to individual cultures. setting up policies and procedures in each country has been compared to an organ ; the question centers around or rejection. the major challenge to the international manager is to make sure that rejection is not a result of cultural myopia or even blindness.
fortune examined the international performance of a dozen large companies that earn 20 percent or more of their . the internationally successful companies all share an important quality: patience. they have not rushed into situations but rather built their operations carefully by following the most basic business principles. these principles are to know your , know your audience, and know your customer.
1. according to the passage, which of the following is true?
a. all international managers can learn culture.
b. business is not necessary.
c. views differ on how to treat culture in business world.
ｄ. most people do not know foreign culture well.
2. according to the author, the model of pepsi .
ａ. is in line with the theories of the school advocating the business is business the world around
ｂ. is different from the model of mcdonald's
ｃ. shows the reverse of globalization
ｄ. has converged cultural differences
3. the two schools of thought .
ａ. both propose that companies should tailor business approaches to individual cultures
ｂ. both advocate that different policies be set up in different countries
ｃ. admit the existence of cultural in business world
ｄ. both ａ and ｂ
4. this article is supposed to be most useful for those .
a. who are interested in researching the topic of cultural
b. who have connections to more than one type of culture
c. who want to travel abroad
d. who want to run business on international scale
5. according to fortune, successful international companies .
ａ. earn 20 percent or more of their
ｂ. all have the quality of patience
ｃ. will follow the local cultures
ｄ. adopt the of internationalization
1. dynamic adj. 动态的
2. n. 变量
3. aesthetics n. 美学
4. factual adj. 事实的
5. interpretative adj. 解释的
6. converge v. 聚合
7. v. 移植
8. myopia n. 近视
9. n. 对手
①【解析】此句虽然很长，但考生只要认清它的主干，就很容易了解本句的意思。这个句子为一个简单句，主语为："this system"，谓语为"is shaped"。
1. c推断题。意为"对在商业中怎样对待文化有着不同意见"。 文化在商业中是一个很具挑战性的因素。不同的国家与地区可能会有不同的文化体系。在商业中，应该怎样对待不同的文化，商业界存在着不同的看法。
2. ａ细节题。意为"......与同意世界商业一体化的派别的主张是一致的"。 pepsi采纳的是国际化的商业风格，这与那些主张国际化的派别的意见是相一致的。