the summer paralympic games, or the summer paralympics, is an sporting held every four years, after the summer olympic games. thousands of athletes with a disability come from all over the world to compete. some are one or more limbs, some have trouble controlling their muscles, and others might have a visual impairment. but they all come to represent their country with pride, and they all do their best to win a paralympic medal, either gold, silver or bronze.
夏季残奥会或夏季残奥会是夏季奥运会后不久举办的国际体育赛事，每四年举办一次。 成千上万身体残疾的运动员来自世界各地参加比赛。 有些人缺少一个或多个肢体，有些人难以控制肌肉，有些则可能有视力障碍。 但他们都骄傲地代表他们的国家，他们都尽力赢得残奥会奖章，无论是金牌，银牌还是铜牌。
in the first summer paralympic games, held in rome in 1960, 400 athletes from 23 countries competed in just eight paralympic sports. since then the has grown enormously. now more than 4,000 athletes from over 150 countries in 20 sports. the current list of summer paralympic sports includes archery, athletics, basketball, boccia, cycling, equestrian, fencing, football, goalball, judo, powerlifting, rowing, rugby, sailing, shooting, swimming, table tennis, and volleyball. many the use of wheelchairs, such as basketball, boccia, fencing, rugby and tennis, while in others special is used, such as the ball containing a bell that visually-impaired players of goalball listen to while they play.
the summer paralympic games are organized by the international paralympic committee (ipc). the ipc has established ten disability categories covering a wide range of and visual impairments. the ipc has also established several levels of impairment within each disability category, from mild to severe. events for each level of impairment are held, and this ensures that athletes against others with a similar disability and level of impairment.
there are several other tournaments for athletes with disabilities, such as the special olympics world summer games for those with an disability, and the summer deaflympics for those with a impairment. these tournaments aren't run by the international olympic committee, but the ioc and the ipc recognize them and allow them to use the term "olympics".
disability (n): any condition that prevents full or use of the body or mind - many people lead lives having a disability.
limb (n): an arm, or a leg - all these guys lost a limb while fighting in the war.
impairment (n): of a body part or sense organ - sue was born with her impairment, but mine was caused by an accident.
wheelchair (n): a chair on large wheels used by people who can't walk - it took me a while to get used to my wheelchair.
boccia (n): a wheelchair sport that's similar to lawn bowls - do you know the rules of boccia?
goalball (n): a team sport for visually impaired athletes - we're going to watch my cousin play goalball tonight.
mild (adj): not very serious, of an illness, injury, impairment, etc. - some brain injuries are quite mild, but others are very serious.
severe (adj): very serious, of an illness, injury, impairment, etc. - diabetes can cause visual impairment, or even blindness.