§ lesson 14 a noble 贵族歹徒

【new words and expressions】 生词和短语

◆ n. 歹徒,强盗

◆chicago n. 芝加哥 (美国城市)

◆protection n. 保护

◆promptly adv. 准时地

◆destroy v. 毁掉;消灭

◆remarkable adj. 不寻常的

◆band n. 帮,团伙

◆florence n. 佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)

◆city-state n. (古代)城邦

◆hire v. 租出,雇给

◆prince n. 君主,诸侯

◆florentine n. 佛罗伦萨人

◆funeral n. 葬礼

◆dedicate v. 奉献,题献给

◆memory n. 纪念

◆ adj. 英勇的

★ n. 歹徒,强盗

a band of s 一伙强盗

robber 抢劫犯,抢劫者;

bandit 强盗,土匪

brigand (书面用语) 强盗,土匪,盗贼,草寇

hooligan 流氓,不良分子

hoodlum (口语)罪犯,恶汉

rascal (口语)淘气,捣蛋鬼

★chicago n. 芝加哥 (美国城市)

★protection n. 保护

protection money 保护费

protect v. protect from

we must protect our eyes from the sunshine.

protective adj. 保护的

protector n.保护者

protege n. 被保护者

★promptly adv. 准时地

i give him a ring and he call me back promptly.

he was so that he went to sleep promptly.

on time准时/ in time及时

punctually adv. 守时地

★destroy v. 毁掉;消灭

destroy 强调毁灭,消灭,完全的摧毁

eg: the destroyed the city. / you destroyed his dream.

damage 强受损程度不很严重,可以被修复

break 强调弄坏,弄断

two of the strings were broken.

spoil 强调把事情搅和了

eg: spoil the party. / spoil the holiday

★remarkable adj. 不寻常的

remarkable adj. : unusual; uncomon; extraordinary

a remarkable event 不同寻常的事件

an extraordinary event

adj. 突出的, 杰出的,卓越的

eg: our headmaster is an youth.

adj. 杰出的,卓越的,不同非凡的

adj. 显赫的,杰出的,有名的,优良的

eg:a physicist; an ; an judge; a lawyer


well-know adj. 强调众所周知的

famous adj. 因卓越的贡献和成绩而流芳百世的

eg: she is well-known in the musical world. / this is well-known fact.

he is a famous moviestar. / luxun is famous for his articles.

notorious adj. 臭名昭著的,臭名远扬的; be famous for bad things

infarmous adj. 声名狼藉的(语气较弱)

rnowned adj. 某人或某事以其独特的品质、个性而闻名

eg: hangzhou is for its beautiful...

★band n. 帮,团伙

a band of robbers 一伙强盗

mob n. 表示贬义色彩的团伙、帮派

a mob of hooligans 一伙流氓

gang n. 一伙 a gang of thieves

nest n. 窝; a nest of bandits

pack n. 团伙、帮派; a pack of hoodlums

★florence n. 佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)

★city-state n. (古代)城邦

★hire v. 租出,雇给

hire; rent; let; employ

hire out; rent out 租给

eg: does this firm hire out cars? 这家公司出租汽车吗?

rent out租给,雇给:主要强调出租房屋

eg: he rent out his house to a tourist.

let 出租房屋: let his house / please let your house to me。

hire from/ rent from 租进来

eg: he hired a car from us. / i rent a room form mrs. johnson.

hire 指短期雇佣体力劳动者

employ 指长期雇佣或聘请脑力劳动者

we employed her as our advisor.

the factory employed 500 workers.

he hired two helpers. 他雇佣了两个临时帮手。

★prince n. 君主,诸侯

★florentine n. 佛罗伦萨人

★funeral n. 葬礼

★dedicate v. 奉献,题献给

dedicate to 奉献给...... 比devote 更为正式而庄重

eg:he dedicated his first book to his mother.

i devote my time to helping my students.

he dedicates his life to his motherland.

he dedicated his life to science.

put sb of business使某人失业

put sb/sth out of ......使某人失去......

eg: you are putting me out of patience.

put it out of your mind 忘记这件事情吧!= forget it.

★ adj. 英勇的

brave adj. 勇敢的

the boy is brave.

during war, soldiers are .

adj. 大无畏的,无所畏惧的

we are in time of danger.

courageous adj. 有胆量的,有勇气的

★memory n. 纪念

you have a good memory.

in memory of / to the memory of

eg: if my memory serves me well, you're tom.如果我没记错的话,你是tom。


§ lesson 14 a noble 贵族歹徒

q: how did hawkwood make money in times of peace?

there was a time when the owners of shop and businesses in chicago had to pay large sums of money to s in return for 'protection'. if the money was not paid promptly, the s would quickly put a man out of business by destroying his shop. obtaining 'protechon money' is not a modern crime. as long ago as the fourteenth century, an englishman, sir john hawkwood, made the remarkable discovery that people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by s.

six hundred years ago, sir john hawkwood arrived in italy with a band of soldiers and settled near florence. he soon made a name for himself and came to be known to the italians as giovanni acuto. whenever the italian city-states were at war with each other, hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who were willing to pay the high price he demanded. in times of peace, when business was bad, hawkwood and his men would march into a city-state and, after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away if protection money was paid to them. hawkwood made large sums of money in this way. in spite of this, the italians regarded him as a sort of hero. when he died at the age of eighty, the florentines gave him a state funeral and had a picture painted which was dedicated to the memory of 'the most soldier and most leader, signor giovanni haukodue'.


pay large sums of money to sb. 向某人付大笔大笔的费用

in return for 目的是为了换取...作为对...的回报

eg: he gave me some books in return for my help.

when引导状语从句修饰 time

eg: there was a time when mini skirt was in fashion.

promptly: innediately

put a man out out of business: 使某人失业

put sb. / sth. out of ... 使某人失去......

eg: you are putting me out of patience.

you have already put everything out of order.

put it out of your mind 忘记这件事情吧

by destroying his shop 通过......手段

eg.: you are putting me out of patience by disturbing me. 你快把我弄得失去耐心了,如果再这样打扰的话。


obtaining: getting

as long ago as 追溯回到:dating back to / date from

eg.: i knew jane as long ago as the year 1980.

john hawkwood's discovery was quite remarkable.

make the remarkable discovery 做出不同寻常的发现

would rather do sth than do sth 宁愿而不

eg.: he would rather die than surrender.

i would rather play than swim.

==would prefer to do......than do

==would prefer doing......to doing

eg.: he would prefer to die than surrender.

he would prefer dying to surrendering.

would rather: sooner that从句 (过去式)

eg: i would rather that you were not here. 我宁愿你不在这儿。

eg: i would rather that i didn't see you. 我宁愿没见到你。

life work 毕生的事业

eg.: i want to have the tree cut down.

six hundred years ago...

a band of...... 一伙............

settled near florence 定居在florence附近

make a name for himself ===become famous

eg.: they soon made quite a name for themselves as pop singers.

come to / get to 渐渐的

come to be known 渐渐的被人所熟知

eg.: i come to be known to my students.

i got to know him.

whenever 无论什么时候

at war 交战 at war with 与......交战

hire 表示出租

who指代 prince

he demanded: hawkwood demanded

in times of peace 在和平期间

in times of......在......期间

march into 大踏步行军

would offer to do=== would promise to do

burn down烧毁/ burn up烧光 / burn out 烧空

eg.: the house was burned out only...

in spite of this 尽管如此

people in different countries have different ipinions.

eg.: the italians regarded him as a sort of hero.

give sb. a state funeral 给某人举行国葬

have sth. done

signor (意大利语) 先生


be dedicated to the memory of sb.

the most 比较级的最高级形式


【special difficulties】

would rather, would sooner:

would rather do than do

would rather that ( that 中要出现动词的过去时)

exercise p 68

give the correct form of the verbs in parentheses:

1 i'd rather _____ ( go ) to the cinema.

2 i'd rather he _____ ( leave ) earlist.

3 i'd rather you not _____ ( speak ) to him.

4 i'd rather not _____ ( speak ) about him.

5 i'd rather my father _____ ( settle ) the account.

6 she'd rather you not _____ ( tell ) anyone about it.

key: 1. go

2. left ( rather后省略了that)

3. ...did not speak...

4. not speak... (否定形式结构:"宁愿不做......" would rather not do

5. settled...

6. ...didn't tell...

【multiple choice questions】


1 what 'protection' did chicago s give to those who aid them?

a. they saved those people's businesses from destruction.

b. they left those people's business premises unharmed.

c. they rotected those people against criminals like sir john hawkwood.

d. they did not take those people' lives.

1. b



2 sir john hawkwood's italian name, "giovanni acuto', was one which _____ .

a. he gave himself in order to become better known to the italians

b. he earned through his sharp practice of selling his 'protection'

c. he needed in order to hire his soldiers to italian princes

d. was given him in recognition of his services to the italian states


2. b

3 the italians regarded hawkwood as a sort of hero _____ .

a. in that they could not help admiring his and bravery

b. as he helped the citizens in peacetime when business was bad for them

c. despite the protection money he offered to those whose farms he burnt

d. for he lived so long and was given a state funeral by the florentines

in that ==because "因为",表示一种原因

3. a


4 obtaining 'protection money' is a crime which _____ practised for a long time .(l.5)

a. has been b. is c. was d. in being

段时间--for a long time (现在完成时)

4. a

5 people prefer paying large sums of money _____ their life work destroyed by s. (ll.7-8)

a. than have b. to have c. to having d. than they have

prefer doing to 动名词

5. c

6 princes used to hire _____ hawkwood. (ll.11-12)

a. his soldiers from b. soldiers from c. soldiers of d. some soldiers of

hire: 从某人租得某物


7 they would refuse to go away _____ rotection money was paid to them. (ll.13-14)

a. unless b. provided that c. except that d. without

if not: 如果不 = unless


7. a

8 _____ at the age of eighty, the florentines gave him... )ll.15-16)

a. on dying b. having died c. on his death d. dead

介词on和名词death 相搭配,表示去世的状态



eg: on him, i ran away.


9 six hundred years have _____ since sir john hawkwook arrived in...(ll.9-10)

a. ast b. passed c. been d. departed


9. b

10 ...princes who were _____ to pay the high price he demanded. (ll.11-12)

a. agreeable b. accepting c.desirable d. prepared


be willing to do==be prepared to do

agreeable: 宜人的,惬意的

desirable:吸引人的 (= attractive )

10. d

11 hawkwood made large sums of money _____ . (l.14)

a. by the way b. with such manners c. on this road d. like this

12 'the most _____ soldier and most leader'... (ll.16-17)

a. valuable b. worthy c. brave d. hardy

12. c
  • [´gæŋstə] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.歹徒,强盗 四级词汇
  • [ʃi´kɑ:gəu] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.芝加哥 四级词汇
  • [´flɔrəns] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.佛罗伦萨 四级词汇
  • [´væliənt] 移动到这儿单词发声 a.勇敢的,英勇的 四级词汇
  • [´bəuldnis] 移动到这儿单词发声 n.大胆;冒失;显著 四级词汇